CIBERESPAÇO, MULTITAREFAS E ATENÇÃO: breve revisão bibliográfica

Palavras-chave: CIBERESPAÇO, MULTITAREFA, ATENÇÃO, DISTRAÇÃO

Resumo

Nesta revisão bibliográfica tratamos como o ciberespaço, com a interligação de todos os dispositivos tecnológicos potencializou o crescimento do hábito multitarefa. Primeiro, apresenta-se os conceitos de cibercultura e de ciberespaço, segundo Pierre Lévy. Em seguida, mostra-se como o ciberespaço, por ser a interconexão global de computadores e outros dispositivos, possibilita aos usuários se conectarem em várias redes e fazerem várias tarefas ao mesmo tempo e assim potencializa a emergência dos indivíduos multitarefas ou multitaskers. Contudo, essas habilidades podem ser vantajosas em alguns aspectos, mas causam dispersão e problemas de atenção. Em terceiro lugar examinam-se aspectos positivos apontados por alguns pesquisadores.  Na quarta parte ver-se-á que grande maioria dos autores discorda destas conclusões, com base em suas próprias pesquisas. Finalmente, conclui-se que não é possível realizar com eficiência duas ou mais coisas ao mesmo tempo e, que ainda não se pode concluir que o fato de ter mais facilidade de trocar de atividade ou de conexão seja algo que beneficie a atenção.

 

PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Ciberespaço; multitarefa; atenção; distração.

 

 

RESUMÉN

En esta revisión bibliográfica tratamos cómo el ciberespacio, con la interconexión de todos los dispositivos tecnológicos, potenció el crecimiento de personas multitareas. En primer lugar, presentamos los conceptos de cibercultura y de ciberespacio, según Pierre Lévy. A continuación, mostramos cómo el ciberespacio por la interconexión global de computadoras y otros dispositivos permite a los usuarios conectarse en varias redes y hacer varias tareas al mismo tiempo y así potencializa la emergencia de los individuos multitareas o multitaskers. Sin embargo, estas habilidades si son ventajosas en algunos aspectos causan dispersión y problemas de atención. En tercer lugar, examinamos aspectos positivos de estas habilidades señalados por algunos investigadores. En la cuarta parte, veremos que gran mayoría de autores se oponen a estas afirmaciones apoyados en los resultados de sus investigaciones. Finalmente, se concluye que no es posible hacer con eficiencia dos o más cosas al mismo tiempo y que aún no se puede concluir que el hecho de tener más facilidad de intercambio de actividad o de conexión sea algo que beneficie la atención.

 

PALABRAS CLAVES: Ciberespacio; multitarea; atención; distracción.

 

 

ABSTRACT

This bibliographical review aims to define cyberspace, as the interconnection of all technological devices, has boosted the growth of multitasking people. First, it presents the concepts of cyberculture and cyberspace, according to Pierre Lévy. Next, it shows how cyberspace through the global interconnection of computers and other devices enables users to connect to multiple networks and do multiple tasks at once and thus enhances the emergence of multitaskers. However, these skills have advantage in some aspects, but by dispersion is a distraction factor and attention problems. Thirdly, it looked at some positive aspects pointed out by some researchers. In the fourth part it’ll see that a great majority of authors disagree on the results of their research. Finally, it is concluded that two or more things cannot be efficiently done at the same time, and that it still cannot be concluded that the fact to be able to change activity or connection easily is something that benefits the attention.

 

KEYWORDS: Cyberspace; multitaskers; attention; distraction.

Downloads

Não há dados estatísticos.

Biografia do Autor

Luiz Fernando Corcini, Universidade de Aveiro

Graduado em Engenharia Industrial Eletrica Eletronica pela Universidade Tecnológica Federal do Paraná, Mestre em Educação e Novas Tecnologias - UNINTER e Doutorando em Ciências e Tecnologia Web - Universidade Aberta de Portugal/Universidade do Alto Douro.  Professor na Universidade de Aveiro. E-mail: corcini@ua.pt.

Referências

ALZAHABI, R., & BECKER, M. (2013, Oct.). The association between media multitasking, task-switching, and dual-task performance. Retrieved Set. 10, 2018, from PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23398256

ARDOSO-LEITE P, G. C. (2015). On the impact of new technologies on multitasking. Elsevier, 98-112.

BRAGANÇA, I., & CRUZ, I. (2009, Mai.). Evolução da comunicação humana: Podemos explicar a história da existência humana através das etapas do desenvolvimento da comunicação. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from Scribd: https://www.scribd.com/doc/16088693/Evolucao-da-comunicacao-humana-Podemos-explicar-a-historia-da-existencia-humana-atraves-das-etapas-do-desenvolvimento-da-comunicacao

CAIN, M. S. (2012, May). Action video game experience reduces the cost of switching tasks. Retrieved Ago. 12, 2018, from PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22415446

CAIN, M., & MITROFF, S. (2011, Sep. 13). Distractor filtering in media multitaskers. (D. U. Department of Psychology and Neuroscience, Ed.) Perception, 40, 1183-92.

CARR, N. (2011). A Geração Superficial: o Que a Internet Está Fazendo Com Os Nossos Cérebros. (M. FRIAÇA, Trans.) RJ: Agir.

CEPEDA, N., KRAMER, A., & GONZALEZ, J. (2001, Sep.). Changes in executive control across the life span: Examination of task-switching performance. American Psychological Association, 37 (5), pp. 715-730. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from http://psycnet.apa.org/doiLanding?doi=10.1037%2F0012-1649.37.5.715

EDELMAN, G. (1994). Biologia do conhecimento. Paris: Odile JAcob.

EDELMAN, G., & TONONI, G. (2000). Comment la matière conscience. Paris: Odile Jacob.

ELLIS, Y., DANIELS, B., & JAUREGUI, A. (2010, Apr). The Effect of Multitasking on the Grade Performance of Business Students. Research in Higher Education Journal, p. 11. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/228299804/download

FOERDES, K., KNOWLTON, B., & POLDRACK, R. (2006, Aug. 1). Modulation of competing memory systems by distraction. PNAS - Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, pp. 11778-11783. Retrieved from http://www.pnas.org/content/103/31/11778

FRIED, C. (2007). In-class laptop use and its eVects on student learning. Computer & Education, p. 9. Retrieved from https://www.winona.edu/psychology/media/friedlaptopfinal.pdf

GOFRON, B. (2014). School in the Era of the Internet. Scielo, 17, pp. 171-180. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from http://www.scielo.org.co/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S0123-12942014000100009

KANDEL, E., & SQUIRE, L. (2003). Memória da Mente às Moléculas. Porto Alegre: Artmed.

LAPLANTINE, F. (2003). Aprender Antropologia (15 ed.). São Paulo: Brasiliense.

LEVINE, L., WAITE, B., & L.L., B. (2007, Aug.). Electronic media use, reading, and academic distractibility in college youth. NCBI, 10(4), pp. 560-566. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17711365

LÉVY, P. (1999). Cibercultura (1 ed.). (C. I. COSTA, Trans.) São Paulo: 34. Retrieved from https://mundonativodigital.files.wordpress.com/2016/03/cibercultura-pierre-levy.pdf

LÉVY, P. (2003). L´Universel sans totalite, essence de la cyberculture. Acesso em 21 de Set. de 2018, disponível em http://www.ub.edu/prometheus21/articulos/obsciberprome/pierreluniversel.pdf

LOH, K., & KANAI, R. (2014, Sep.). Higher media multi-tasking activity is associated with smaller gray-matter density in the anterior cingulate cortex. Retrieved Jul. 23, 2018, from PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25250778

LUI, K. F., & WONG, A. C. (2012, Aug.). Does media multitasking always hurt? A positive correlation between multitasking and multisensory integration. Retrieved Jul. 10, 2018, from PubMed: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22528869

LUSSIER, M., & BHREHER, L. (2017, Sep. 1). Limited Benefits of Heterogeneous Dual-Task Training on Transfer Effects in Older Adults. The Journails of Gerontology, 17 (5), pp. 801-812. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from https://academic.oup.com/psychsocgerontology/article/72/5/801/2631937

MINEAR, M., & SHAH, P. (2008, Dec.). Training and transfer effects in task switching. NBCI, pp. 1470-1483. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19015506

MINEAR, M., BRASHER, F., McCURDY, M., LEWIS, J., & YOUNGGREN, A. (2013, Dec.). Working memory, fluid intelligence, and impulsiveness in heavy media multitaskers. Psychonomic Bulletin & Review, 20 (6), pp. 1274-1281. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13423-013-0456-6

MOSAILA, M., SALMELA, V., SALO, E., CARLSON, S., LONKA, K., & ALHO, K. (2016, Jul. 1). Media multitasking is associated with distractibility and increased prefrontal activity in adolescents and young adults. NCBI, pp. 113-121. doi:10.1016

NASSIF, L. (2016). ‘Internet molda o cérebro das pessoas’, diz Nicolelis. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from GGN- O Jornal de todos os Brasis: https://jornalggn.com.br/noticia/%E2%80%98internet-molda-o-cerebro-das-pessoas%E2%80%99-diz-nicolelis

NORRETRANDERS, T. (1998). User Illusion: Cutting Consciousness Down to Size. NY: Viking.

OPHIR, E., C., N., & A., W. (2009). Cognitive Control in Media Multitaskers. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 106(37). doi:10.1073

PLATÃO. (2010). Fedro. (A. Pinheiro, & E. Bini, Trans.) São Paulo: Folha de São Paulo.

RALPH, B., THOMSON, D., SELI, P., CARRIERE, J., & SMILEK, D. (2015, Feb). Media multitasking and behavioral measures of sustained attention. Attention, Perception, & Psychophysics, 77 (2), pp. 390-401. Retrieved Jul. 14, 2018, from https://link.springer.com/article/10.3758%2Fs13414-014-0771-7

RIDEOUT, V., FOEHR, U., & ROBERTS, D. (2010). Generation M2: Media in the Lives of 8- to 18-Year Olds. Menlo Park: The Henry J. Kaiser Family Foundation. Retrieved Jul. 14, 2018, from https://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED527859.pdf

ROTHBART, M., & POSNER, M. (2015). The developing brain in a multitasking world. Developmental Review, 42-63. Retrieved from : http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.dr.2014.12.006

SANBONMATSU, D., STRAYER, D., MEDEIROS-WARD, N., & WATSON, J. (2013, Jan. 23). Who multi-tasks and why? Multi-tasking ability, perceived multi-tasking ability, impulsivity, and sensation seeking. PLOS One. Retrieved from https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0054402

STRAYER, D., & JOHNSTON, W. (2001, Nov. 1). Driven to distraction: dual-Task studies of simulated driving and conversing on a cellular telephone. NCBI, pp. 462-466. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11760132

STROBACH, T., FRENSCH, P., & SCHUBERT, T. (2012, May). Video game practice optimizes executive control skills in dual-task and task switching situations. Acta Psychologica, 140 (1), pp. 12-24. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0001691812000273

UNCAPHER, M., THIEU, M., & WAGNER, A. (2016, Apr. 26). Media multitasking and memory: Differences in working memory and long-term memory. Psychon Bull Rev, pp. 483-490. doi:10.3758/s13423-015-0907-3

WIHBEY, P. (2013). Multitasking, social media and distraction: Research review. Retrieved Set. 24, 2018, from Journalistic's Resource: https://journalistsresource.org/studies/society/social-media/multitasking-social-media-distraction-what-does-research-say

WOLPERT, S. (2009, Jan. 27). Is Technology Producing A Decline In Critical Thinking And Analysis? Retrieved Set. 10, 2018, from UCLA Newroom: http://newsroom.ucla.edu/releases/is-technology-producing-a-decline-79127

YAP, J., & LIM, S. (2013, Oct 25). Media multitasking predicts unitary versus splitting visual focal attention. Journal of Cognitive Psychology, pp. 889-902. Retrieved from https://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/20445911.2013.835315

ZIVONY, A. &. (2016, Aug. 16). Attentional capture and engagement during the attentional blink: A "camera" metaphor of attention. PublMed, 42(11), pp. 1886-1902. doi: 10.1037/xhp0000286

Publicado
2019-07-01
Como Citar
CORCINI, L. F.; MOSER, A. CIBERESPAÇO, MULTITAREFAS E ATENÇÃO: breve revisão bibliográfica. Revista Observatório, v. 5, n. 4, p. 309-334, 1 jul. 2019.
Seção
Tema Livre / Free Theme / Tema Libre