Teoria da metáfora conceptual

um dinâmico passo adiante?

Palavras-chave: Metáforas; Cognição; Sistemas Dinâmicos.

Resumo

A Teoria da Metáfora Conceptual (TMC) inspira várias pesquisas em contextos interdisciplinares, o que torna difícil rastrearmos quais pontos da teoria são pertinentes no cenário das ciências cognitivas hoje. O objetivo deste artigo é problematizar algumas reivindicações da TCM considerando recentes discussões pautadas em pesquisas empíricas e teóricas. Sendo assim, discutiremos os seguintes pontos: ao contrário do que a TMC propunha, (i) conceitos abstratos não são majoritariamente metafóricos; (ii) metáforas não determinam o pensamento; e (iii) a representação e o processamento de metáforas não são fixos. Além disso, ressaltamos que (iv) o significado das metáforas são mais do que mapeamentos entre domínios, enfatizando tendências de pesquisas em comunicação metafórica. Neste artigo, enfatizamos o caráter dinâmico das metáforas, o que traz a visão de que metáforas conceptuais são vieses cognitivos. Além disso, discutimos algumas possibilidades analíticas que não são feitas tradicionalmente na linguística, contemplando conhecimentos que vão além da noção de “mapeamentos entre domínios”.

Referências

BARSALOU, L. W. Challenges and Opportunities for Grounding Cognition. Journal of Cognition (in press), 2020.

BARSALOU, L. W.; DUTRIAUX, L.; SCHEEPERS, C. Moving beyond the distinction between concrete and abstract concepts. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, v. 373, n. 1752, 2018.

BEHUNIAK, S. M. The living dead? The construction of people with Alzheimer's disease as zombies. Ageing & Society, v. 31, n. 1, p. 70-92, 2011.

BOLOGNESI, M., & VERNILLO, P. How abstract concepts emerge from metaphorical images: The metonymic way. Language & Communication, 69, 2019, p.26-41.

BORGHI, Anna M. et al. Varieties of abstract concepts: development, use and representation in the brain. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. 2018. B373: 20170121. http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2017.0121

CAMERON, L.; MASLEN, R. Metaphor analysis. London: Equinox, 2010.

CUCCIO, V.; GALLESE, V. A Peircean account of concepts: grounding abstraction in phylogeny through a comparative neuroscientific perspective. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, v. 373, n. 1752, 2018.

GENTNER, D. Structure-mapping: A theoretical framework for analogy. Cognitive science, v. 7, n. 2, p. 155-170, 1983.

BOWDLE, B. F.; GENTNER, D. The career of metaphor. Psychological review, v. 112, n. 1, p. 193, 2005.

BUNDGAARD, P. F. Are cross-domain mappings psychologically deep, but conceptually shallow? What is still left to test for conceptual metaphor theory. Cognitive Semiotics, v. 5, n. 1-2, p. 400-407, 2013.

DAVIS, C. P.; ALTMANN, G. T. M; YEE, E. Situational systematicity: A role for schema in understanding the differences between abstract and concrete concepts. Cognitive Neuropsychology, p. 1-12, 2020.

DESAI, R. H.; REILLY, M.; VAN DAM, W.. The multifaceted abstract brain. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, v. 373, n. 1752, p. 20170122, 2018.

FELDMAN, Jerome. From molecule to metaphor: A neural theory of language. MIT press, 2008.

FAUCONNIER, G., & TURNER, M. The way we think: Conceptual blending and the mind's hidden complexities. Basic Books. 2008

FLUSBERG, S. J.; MATLOCK, T.; THIBODEAU, P. H. War metaphors in public discourse. Metaphor and Symbol, v. 33, n. 1, p. 1-18, 2018.

GALLESE, V.; LAKOFF, G. The brain's concepts: The role of the sensory-motor system in conceptual knowledge. Cognitive neuropsychology, v. 22, n. 3-4, p. 455-479, 2005.

GEORGE, D. R.; WHITEHOUSE, P. J. The war (on terror) on Alzheimer’s. Dementia, v. 13, n. 1, p. 120-130, 2014.

GIBBS-JR, R. W. Metaphor as dynamical–ecological performance. Metaphor and Symbol, v. 34, n. 1, p. 33-44, 2019.

GIBBS-JR, R. W. Metaphor wars. NY: Cambridge University Press, 2017.

GIBBS-JR, R.. Metaphors, snowflakes, and termite nests: How nature creates such beautiful things. In F. MacArthur, J.-L. Oncins-Martinez, A. Piquer-Piriz, & M. Sancez-Garcia (Eds.), Metaphor in use: Culture, context, and communication (pp. 347–372). Amsterdam: Benjamins. 2012.

GIBBS-JR, R. W. Evaluating conceptual metaphor theory. Discourse processes, v. 48, n. 8, p. 529-562, 2011.

GIBBS-JR, R.; SANTA CRUZ, M.Temporal unfolding of conceptual metaphoric experience. Metaphor and Symbol, 27, 299–311. 2012. doi:10.1080/10926488.2012.716299

GIBBS JR, R. W. Making good psychology out of blending theory. Cognitive linguistics, 2000.

GLUCKSBERG, S. et al. Understanding figurative language: From metaphor to idioms. Oxford University Press on Demand, 2001.

GRADY, J. Foundations of meaning: Primary metaphors and primary scenes. 1997.

HOLYOAK, K. J.; STAMENKOVIĆ, D. Metaphor comprehension: A critical review of theories and evidence. Psychological bulletin, v. 144, n. 6, p. 641, 2018.

KÖVECSES, Z. Levels of metaphor. Cognitive linguistics, v. 28, n. 2, p. 321-347, 2017.

KÖVECSES, Z. Some consequences of a multi-level view of metaphor. Current approaches to metaphor analysis in discourse, p. 19-33, 2019.

KÖVECSES, Z. Conceptual metaphor theory: Some criticisms and alternative proposals. Annual review of cognitive linguistics, v. 6, n. 1, p. 168-184, 2008.

LAKOFF, G.; JOHNSON, M. Metaphors we live by. Chicago, IL: University of Chicago, 1980.

LAKOFF, G.. The Neural Theory of Metaphor. In: GIBBS, R. W (ed). The Cambridge Handbook of Metaphor and Thought. Cambridge University Press, 2008.

LANDAU, M. J.; ZHONG, C.; SWANSON, T. J. Conceptual metaphors shape consumer psychology. Consumer Psychology Review, v. 1, n. 1, p. 54-71, 2018.

LANE, H. P.; MCLACHLAN, S.; PHILIP, J. The war against dementia: are we battle weary yet?. Age and ageing, v. 42, n. 3, p. 281-283, 2013.

LITTLEMORE, J. Metaphors in the Mind. Cambridge University Press. 2019.

MEIER, B. P., & ROBINSON, M. D. Why the sunny side is up: Associations between affect and vertical position. Psychological science, 15(4), 2004. P. 243-247.

MITCHELL, M. On Crashing the Barrier of Meaning in Artificial Intelligence. AI Magazine, 41(2), 2020, p.86-92.

MURPHY, G. L. On metaphoric representation. Cognition, 60(2), 1996, p. 173-204.

NGATCHA-RIBERT, L. Alzheimer disease and society: an analysis of its social representation. Psychologie & neuropsychiatrie du vieillissement, 2(1), 2004, p. 49-66.

PINKER, S. Block that metaphor! The New Republic. 2006. Disponível em: https://newrepublic.com/article/77730/block-metaphor-steven-pinker-whose-freedom-george-lakoff, acesso em 16 jun, 2020.

SAUCIUC, G. A. The role of metaphor in the structuring of emotion concepts. Cognitive Semiotics, 5(1-2), 2009, p. 244-267.

SEMINO, E., DEMJÉN, Z., & DEMMEN, J. An integrated approach to metaphor and framing in cognition, discourse, and practice, with an application to metaphors for cancer. Applied linguistics, 39(5), 2018, p. 625-645.

SIMAN, J. H. Metáforas sobre doença de Alzheimer: no pensamento e no mundo social. 2019. Revista do SETA-ISSN 1981-9153, 9.

STAMPOULIDIS, G., BOLOGNESI, M., & ZLATEV, J. A cognitive semiotic exploration of metaphors in Greek street art. Cognitive Semiotics, 12(1), 2019.

STEEN, G. Deliberate Metaphor Theory: Basic assumptions, main tenets, urgent issues. Intercultural Pragmatics, 14(1), 2017, p. 1-24.

STEEN, G. J. The contemporary theory of metaphor—now new and improved!. Review of Cognitive Linguistics. Published under the auspices of the Spanish Cognitive Linguistics Association, 9(1), 2011, p. 26-64.

STEEN, G. The paradox of metaphor: Why we need a three-dimensional model of metaphor. Metaphor and Symbol, 23(4), 2008, p. 213-241.

SULLIVAN, K. Frame-based constraints on lexical choice in metaphor. In Annual Meeting of the Berkeley Linguistics Society Vol. 32, No. 1, 2006, pp. 387-399.

SVANLUND, J. Metaphor and convention. Cognitive linguistics, 18(1), 2007, p. 47-89.

THIBODEAU, P. H., MATLOCK, T.; FLUSBERG, S. J. The role of metaphor in communication and thought. Language and Linguistics Compass, 13(5), 2019, e12327.

THIBODEAU, P. H., HENDRICKS, R. K.; BORODITSKY, L. How linguistic metaphor scaffolds reasoning. Trends in cognitive sciences, 21(11), 2017, p. 852-863.

THIBODEAU, P. H.; BORODITSKY, L. Metaphors we think with: The role of metaphor in reasoning. PloS one, 6(2), 2011, e16782.

VALENZUELA, J. What empirical work can tell us about Primary Metaphors. Quaderns de Filologia-Estudis Lingüístics, 14, 2009, p. 235-249.

VERVAEKE, J.; KENNEDY, J. M. Metaphors in language and thought: Falsification and multiple meanings. Metaphor and Symbol, 11(4), 1996, p. 273-284.
Publicado
2021-02-07
Como Citar
Siman, J. H., & Oliveira da Motta Sampaio, T. (2021). Teoria da metáfora conceptual. Porto Das Letras, 7(1), 201-220. Recuperado de https://sistemas.uft.edu.br/periodicos/index.php/portodasletras/article/view/10576